California Poppy

Eschscholzia californica
California Poppy, Copa de Oro

 

The California Poppy is a member of the Papaveraceae family.  The Poppy family consists of 42 genera and approximately 800 species. It is named for Johann Friedrich Von Eschscholtz; a German botanist who explored California in 1810.  Eschscholzia californica became the official state flower in1902 beating out the Mariposa Lily (Calochotrus) and the Matilija Poppy (Romneya) for the Honor.

Description:

Eschscholzia californica is an herbaceous annual or biennial, 6 inches to two feet in height and spread.  The leaves are blue- grey-green, glaucus and finely divided into linear segments.  The leaves are primarily basal and attach to a long thin carrot like taproot.  The flowers have four bright orange silky petals 1 to 2 inches long and bloom from February through September.  The flower has numerous stamens and 1 pistil attached to a superior ovary.  The flowers close at night or in windy conditions to help conserve water.  The seed pod is a single chambered linear tube; 1 ½ to 3 inches long and 1/8 inches in diameter, containing 50 or more seeds.  The seeds are round, dark brown to black in color and less than a thirty-second of an inch in diameter.

Habitat:

Eschscholzia californica is native to the Western United States and Northern Mexico from sea level to 6000 feet of elevation.  It is commonly found in large colonies in open meadows and hillsides.  It is tolerant of most soil types, but prefers well drained loam and full sun.

Uses:

California Poppy leaves and roots contain several useful medicinal compounds in the form of alkaloids.  The main alkaloids are Chelirubine, Sanguinarine and Macarpine; which are used as an Analgesic, Sedative and Antispasmodic.  The seeds were also consumed by Native Americans as a source of protein.

There are several other species of Eschscholzia native to California.

E. caespitosa; Tufted Poppy.  Tufted foliage and yellow flowers

E. lemmonii; Lemon’s Poppy.  The leaves are whitish and pubescent.

E. minutiflora;  Pigmy Poppy.  The plant is less than 3 inches tall.

E. ramose;  Island Poppy.   The flowers are less than ½ inch in diameter.

By Steven Schulz

California Buckwheat

California Buckwheat
Eriogonum fasciculatum foliolosum

 

The buckwheats are very important butterfly plants and one of the pillars of their communities. California Buckwheat has a whole community of insects living with the flowers. When I was photographing some of the native bees on the flowers I discovered layers of predators. There was the native bees, the flower flies and wasps, then predators of the flower insects, then insect predators of the predators, and then a bird would show up and eat the predator of the predator, and then a butterfly would fly into the middle of the fray. In a small garden you can set a couple feet away from this shrub (or sub-shrub) and watch 50 or maybe 100 insects interact at one time. It kind of feels like playing Q in Star Trek.

Sticky Monkey Flower

Sticky or Shrubby Monkey Flower

Native to Oregon, California and Baja California.
To 4 1/2 ft. tall and wide, with narrow 1 1/2 inch long sticky dark green leaves. Buff toned orange, 1 3/4 inch flowers bloom over a long spring and summer season.
Mimulus thrive in full sun or partial shade, with little water.

If you visit the SYV Botanic Garden, be sure to look below the rock wall by the kiosk and you will see the Monkey Flowers in full bloom.